Mr. Parent영어사 Mr. Parent(Kevin Parent) 께서
친히 우리를 위해 기말고사 문제를 공개하셨다. (지지난 주)
What did you learn from this class?
이번 학기 영어사 수업을 되돌아보면,
처음에는 언어가 왜 변하는지에 대해서 하다가
영어와 한글의 차이점 그리고 한글의 역사 (고대, 중대, 현대) 하더니,
롤플레잉(Role playing)을 시켰다.
1066년 노르망디 (Normandy, 지금의 프랑스)가 앵글로-색슨족(Anglo-Saxon)을 침략한 이야기였다.
그 다음에 우리는 영상물을 보았는데, 2부로 나뉘어져 있었다.
피튀기는 전투를 하는 거였는데, 정말
재미도 없고 영상물 보는데만 2주 정도 할애했다.
그 이후에는 무역을 하면서 영어에 다른 나라 언어들이 많이 들어왔다는 예시를 보여주었다.
우리는 노트 필기 한다고 손가락 빠지게 적었는데,
과연 이걸 기말 페이퍼에 적을 수 있을지 의문이다.
너무 많아서 노트 한 권 다 썼다.
대충 생각나는 걸 적어야 겠다.
2010-06-14 16:00경에 시험을 칠 예정이다.
답안지를 나름 작성해봤다.
외국인 교수라서 한글로 쓰면 Oh, no!!! 죄다 영어로 써야한다.
어려운 단어는 없지만, 폭풍답안작성하다가 문법상 오류가 생길지도
내가 준비한 답안
- Language can be changed because of social class, race and isolated area. Language should be changed because there are many new inventions developed, so we need new words for our efficiency.
- Korean and English have some similarities; first, both divide into Old, Middle and Modern periods. Second, both England and Korea were invaded, and both invasion had a profound effect on the language. Third, both imported a large number of foreign words. Fourth, both had periods when no writings was produced. In both cause, it was because of invasions. Korean and English have differences, too; In Korean, Writing blackout lasted for seven years only, but English writing blackout lasted for over 200 years. We don't know where Korean came from but only theories. We know for certain where English came from. Korean words came from Chinese over 50%, English words came from French over 70%.
- Celts lived in England. They used Celtic language. Julius Caesar tried to attack England twice but failed. Claudius Caesar finally invaded England. England was ruled under of Roman Empire for 400 years. After Roman Empire collapsed, Roman pulled out their army. Celts attacked from the north, so they asked German of help. But the German (Anglo, Saxon, Jutes) kept coming to England and killing Celts. Celtic language almost destroyed, and their language in England became Anglo-Saxon language; Jutes is minority. So basically, England were speaking German language. (Old) English was the only vernacular. All Europe used Latin.
- Language family of English is Indo-European.
(Proto-Germanic) - (West Germanic) - (Anglo-Frisian) - (Old English = Anglo-Saxon) - (Middle English) - (English)
- Invasion of the dragons(798) lasted 70 years. Vikings from Norway (The North Way) used Old Norse. 6 out of 7 kingdoms were invaded, only one kingdom was left. King Alfred of England persuaded 4,000 people to fight against 50,000 Vikings, and they won. So they made 'Great White Hose' in 878. They took Peace Treaty with Danish people. Danish and English people married, and their children used new language; lots of Norse came into English vocabulary. i.e., skirt, knife, neck, husband, law, egg, ugly, die. Grammar began to simplify―they fixed the word-order. Verbs from Norse or other languages had to make 'past tense'; regular form. All irregular verbs is from Anglo-Saxon. To prevent written English dying, king Alfred translated Latin into English.
- In 1066, England was under of Norman rule (Normandy, now France) French was used. English was also used, but no written English. Written English died in 1154. More preposition came. It was the beginning of Middle English.
Normandy kills almost the entire Northern population, kills all the entire animals, burns all the forests, salts the land. Survivors became cannibals. Rulers, Norman, spoke French. In Old English 3% of words were from Latin. Today 70% of English words are from French/Latin.
- The General Service Lists (GSL) which is a list of 2284 English words and their frequency published in 1953. There was no computer, it took about 10 years. There are 4 types of frequency; high frequency words, academic words, technical words, low frequency words. There are 4 types of semantic changes; broadening, narrowing, bifurcation, shift.
- Middle English became Modern English because of printing press, grammar books―to stop the language from changing, dictionaries.
- The language of the church was Latin; all was spoken in Latin until 1965. John Wycliffe who was translated Bible into English for the very first time and his followers made many copies of English Bible, 170 copies exist today. At that time, church did not want to lose power, English Bible banned. Tyndale went to Germany in 1524 and made 6,000 Bibles in English in 1526. He tried to snuggle English Bible into England. Phrases still used today from Tyndale's Bible. Finally, 'The Great Bible' of the new Church of England legally published in 1539.
- Beginning around the year of 1580, England opened up to International trade(maritime trade). New words appeared between 10,000 to 12,000; from French, Spanish/Portuguese, Dutch. Sailors created slangs such as fockinge, krappe. They mainly traded 'food'; apricot, banana, limes, mandarine orange, yam, chocolate, Tomato, bamboo, ketchup, curry, yoghurt, coffee, alcohol. They traded 'artists', too, especially from Italy; balcony, fresco, villa, design, opera, violin, trill. The language of 'scholars' was Latin/Greek. Even today Latin and Greek are the classical languages. Medical words are from classical language; virus, skeleton, temperature. 20th Century Modern words also came from classical languages; internet, audio, video.
- Puritans had been tortured and killed in England. They went to "The New World" to stay. Squanto, who had been kidnapped and taken to England. He was trained to speak English for translation. He escaped and he went to America. Squanto helped puritans to live in America. Puritans are very conservative, so very few words are from Indian language; skunk, squash. Puritans came from all over England; there are many dialects but no dialects dominated. It becomes 'American pronunciation'.
- Noah Webster made the first American Dictionary. IT only has 50 new words. But Lewis&Clark who recorded their journey each day created over 2,000 new words.
- People collected slaves who spoke different languages. It was the beginning of African-American dialect. About 3,000-6,000 African words entered English; Chimpanzee, gorilla.
- In India, English taught to Indians by Indians. Their English became a little different. Indian owned their English.
- English trade was threatened by Spanish. Queen Elizabeth unofficially ordered to hijack the Spanish ships; pirate's words appeared. They exported sugar cane and imported African slaves.
- English convicts and prisoners were moved to Australia. Their dialect was 18th century criminal dialect. There are 2 features of Australia English; abbreviations and HRT(High-raise Terminal)
- English becomes a global language. After World War I, world's power shifted to America. The southern part of America was being industrialized. People from south moved to north to find a job especially black people; words from Black Music and Black English appeared.
- In early 20th century, population of U.S doubled within 30 years; newcomers from Europe (particularly Germany)
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